FEV Engine Technology Develops Future Diesels

AUBURN HILLS, MI — FEV Engine Technology is working on a National Renewable Energy Laboratory managed program to develop a new diesel emission-control-system strategy to meet stiffer U.S. emissions requirements that take full effect in 2007.

FEV’s work is being sponsored by a government/industry consortium formed to identify and evaluate low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engine technology, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards through 2007. The program will also assess fuels and vehicle systems that could lead to even lower emissions beyond 2007.

FEV will test the emission-control system on regulated and unregulated emissions using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel on an Audi A4, and will evaluate the sulfur tolerance of an advanced NOx adsorber catalyst/diesel particulate filter system.

The project will measure the impact on performance and durability. Engine dynamometer and vehicle-based FTP, SFTP and HFET tests are part of >the process to develop a strategy to meet Federal Tier II emission standards. FEV also implemented an advanced catalyst aging process as part of the project.

FEV’s testing strategy incorporates an advanced high-pressure common-rail fuel-injection system, low-sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NACs) and diesel-particulate filters (DPFs).

To reach these objectives, an emissions control system initially was optimized in a test cell under various conditions. A rapid warm-up strategy was developed to achieve the fastest possible catalyst light-off under cold-start conditions. Performance of the catalysts was mapped and optimized under various load and speed conditions with varying lean-to-rich fuel mixtures.

FEV then installed a prototype engine in a vehicle and optimized the system to provide the lowest practical level of emissions. NOx-adsorber catalyst and diesel-particulate-filter strategies, including lean/rich operation and desulfurization of the NAC and regeneration of the DPF, also were developed and implemented in the test cell and vehicle.

The FEV test engine (called Diesel Future II) was built primarily from production parts, with a special cylinder head and piston design developed by FEV to reduce emissions. Most of the components used are commercially available, including an electronically-actuated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve and a variable-nozzle-geometry turbocharger.

Test results for the vehicle indicate that the EPA Tier 2 Bin 5 levels can be met, and the emission control concept shows potential for meeting future emission standards with a fuel-economy penalty of less than five percent. Several automakers are currently evaluating the results. The next phase of the FEV program will test the long-term aging performance of the system

The Tier 2 program is part of an EPA effort to simultaneously improve air quality and simplify emissions regulations. Under Tier 2 standards for cars and light trucks, 100 percent of all cars and light trucks must meet these standards by 2007. Tier 2 also calls for reduced sulfur levels in automotive fuels, which will help drive further reductions in vehicle emissions over time.

The EPA required manufacturers of cars and light trucks to introduce their first Tier 2-certified vehicles in 2004. In 2005, manufacturers must certify 50 percent of their fleet to meet Tier 2 standards.

FEV is an independent engine and powertrain systems research, design and development company. Globally, it provides complete concept-to-production (C2P)(TM) support to the transportation industry, commercial engine manufacturers and the emerging fuel-cell industry. FEV designs, prototypes and develops advanced gasoline-, diesel- and alternative-fueled engines, along with advanced vehicle powertrain concepts, including hybrid-electric vehicles. FEV also is a global supplier of advanced test cell, instrumentation and test equipment.

Additional information is available at www.FEV.com

Acknowledgement: This project is being conducted under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC) activity and is being managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

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